Nonhuman Primate (Rhesus Macaque) Models of Severe Pressure-Targeted Hemorrhagic and Polytraumatic Hemorrhagic Shock

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We endeavored to develop clinically translatable nonhuman primate (NHP) models of severe polytraumatic hemorrhagic shock.


NHPs were randomized into five severe pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock (PTHS) ± additional injuries scenarios: 30-min PTHS (PTHS-30), 60-min PTHS (PTHS-60), PTHS-60 + soft tissue injury (PTHS-60+ST), PTHS-60+ST + femur fracture (PTHS-60+ST+FF), and decompensated PTHS+ST+FF (PTHS-D). Physiologic parameters were recorded and blood samples collected at five time points with animal observation through T = 24 h. Results presented as mean ± SEM; statistics: log transformation followed by two-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparisons, Wilcoxon nonparametric test for comparisons, and the Friedmans’ one-way ANOVA; significance: P < 0.05.


Percent blood loss was 40% ± 2, 59% ± 3, 52% ± 3, 49% ± 2, and 54% ± 2 for PTHS-30, PTHS-60, PTHS-60+ST, PTHS-60+ST+FF, and PTHS-D, respectively. All animals survived to T = 24 h except one in each of the PTHS-60 and PTHS-60+ST+FF groups and seven in the PTHS-D group. Physiologic, coagulation, and inflammatory parameters demonstrated increasing derangements with increasing model severity.


NHPs exhibit a high degree of resilience to hemorrhagic shock and polytrauma as evidenced by moderate perturbations in metabolic, coagulation, and immunologic outcomes with up to 60 min of profound hypotension regardless of injury pattern. Extending the duration of PTHS to the point of decompensation in combination with polytraumatic injury, evoked derangements consistent with those observed in severely injured trauma patients which would require ICU care. Thus, we have successfully established a clinically translatable NHP trauma model for use in testing therapeutic interventions to trauma.

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