Analysis of Down syndrome failed to be diagnosed after prenatal screening: A multicenter study

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Abstract

To analyze the characters of Down syndrome (DS) who failed to be diagnosed after prenatal screening and hope to be able to improve the programs of prenatal screening and reduce the missed diagnosis of DS. In this multicenter study, we collected the missed cases from 3 prenatal diagnosis centers and analyzed their characters. A total of 126 DS babies failed to be diagnosed after prenatal screening. Their mothers accepted the prenatal screening in second trimester. We collected the mothers’ blood and detected the levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (fβhCG) by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. The values were also presented as multiples of the median (MoM) and determined the risk of carrying a fetus with DS by Wallace LifeCycle Elipse analysis software. Compared with normal control group, the level of fβhCG and hCG MoM were dramatically increased, while AFP and AFP MoM were decreased. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve of trisomy 21 was 0.8387 for hCG-MoM and AFP-MoM testing. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 84.6%, 74.8%, 75.4%, and 83.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the prediction mode was “0.39957 + 1.90897*HCG-MOM −3.32713*AFP-MOM”. It was worthwhile noting that the risk of 65.9% DS missed diagnosis group were higher than 1/1000, 92.9% higher than 1/3000. However, 72.5% cases in normal control group were lower than 1/3000. Only 9.2% mothers would be higher than the value of risk in 1/1000. The prediction mode of hCG MoM and AFP MoM might be able to help us reduce the missed diagnosis. It is also necessary to adjust more reasonable range of noninvasive prenatal testing with further clinical researches.

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