Mortality among infants with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia increases with major surgery and with pulmonary hypertension

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To assess whether mortality in patients with evolving bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, defined as ≥ 28 days of oxygen exposure with lung disease) is independently associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and surgery.


Single institution retrospective birth cohort of preterm infants with gestational age (GA) 230/7 to 366/7 weeks, and evolving BPD delivered between 2001 and 2014. Surgery was classified as minor or major using published criteria. Mortality was analyzed by stepwise logistic regression analysis.


Among 577 patients with evolving BPD, 33 (6%) died prior to discharge. Mortality decreased with GA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.87), birth weight Z-score (aOR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.996) and increased with PAH (aOR: 30, 95% CI: 2.1, 415), major surgery (aOR; 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3, 6.3), and PAH and surgery (aOR: 10.3, 95% CI: 2.5, 42.1).


Among preterm patients with evolving BPD, PAH and surgery are independently associated with mortality.

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