Nonisolated Small Bowel Gastrointestinal Angiodysplasias are Associated With Higher Rebleeding Rates When Compared With Isolated Small Bowel Gastrointestinal Angiodysplasia on Video Capsule Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background:

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias (GIAD) are commonly diagnosed in the small bowel but can be located in other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. About half of patients diagnosed with GIAD have more than 1 lesion and 20% of patients have GIAD in both the small bowel and a source outside of the small bowel (nonisolated to small bowel GIAD or NISGIAD). The remaining patients with GIAD have lesions isolated to the small bowel (ISGIAD). Complications including rebleeding, hospitalization and mortality rates have not been previously analyzed between these 2 groups.

Aim:

To compare rebleeding, hospitalization and mortality rates between ISGIAD and NISGIAD. The secondary goals were to evaluate comorbidities that may be associated with ISGIAD and/or NISGIAD, and to determine if any of these comorbidities are associated with a higher risk of rebleeding from GIAD.

Materials and Methods:

This was a retrospective study that included 425 patients who underwent video capsule endoscopy between 2006 and 2013. Patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy before video capsule endoscopy. The primary indications for workup included obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. After exclusion criteria, 87 patients diagnosed with GIAD remained, 57 patients with ISGIAD and 30 with NISGIAD. Categorical variables were compared by the Fisher exact test or χ2 test and continuous data were compared using the Student T test.

Results:

Risk factors associated with rebleeding rates included coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, and congestive heart failure on multivariate analysis. Odds ratios for rebleeding was found in patients with NISGIAD (odds ratio, 4.222; P=0.036). There was no difference in hospitalization rates between patients with ISGIAD and NISGIAD. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality from any cause at 30, 60, and 90 days in patients with ISGIAD and NISGIAD.

Conclusions:

In this retrospective analysis of GIAD at a single institution, patients with NISGIAD compared with ISGIAD had a 4 times odds of rebleeding within 1 year after capsule endoscopy. This is a novel study, as the distribution of GIAD has not been previously described as being a risk factor for rebleeding.

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