Ocular sarcoidosis: new diagnostic modalities and treatment

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis is present in up to 80% of patients and is frequently manifested before diagnosis of the underlying systemic disease. Considering the therapeutic consequences, early diagnosis of the underlying disease is advantageous in patients presenting with ocular inflammation. There are several ocular findings suggestive of underlying sarcoidosis, such as granulomatous keratic precipitates, iris nodules, cells in the vitreous humor known as snowballs and snowbanks, and retinal periphlebitis. High suspicion is crucial for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This review on ocular sarcoidosis will mainly focus on new diagnostic and treatment modalities.

Recent findings

Recent studies found possible new diagnostic indicators for the diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis which include not only serum profiles but also vitreous sample analysis. Ophthalmologic imaging techniques have improved to investigate the ocular structure in detail. Results from recent uveitis clinical trials have included sarcoidosis as an underlying cause and have reported positive results.

Summary

The diagnosis of ocular sarcoidosis can be challenging in some cases. High suspicion is important to diagnose ocular sarcoidosis with various laboratory and ophthalmic tools. There are many possible options for the treatment of ocular sarcoidosis including various biologic agents.

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