Acoustic radiation force control: Pulsating spherical carriers
The interaction between harmonic plane progressive acoustic beams and a pulsating spherical radiator is studied. The acoustic radiation force function exerted on the spherical body is derived as a function of the incident wave pressure and the monopole vibration characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) of the body. Two distinct strategies are presented in order to alter the radiation force effects (i.e., pushing and pulling states) by changing its magnitude and direction.
In the first strategy, an incident wave field with known amplitude and phase is considered. It is analytically shown that the zero- radiation force state (i.e., radiation force function cancellation) is achievable for specific pulsation characteristics belong to a frequency-dependent straight line equation in the plane of real-imaginary components (i.e., Nyquist Plane) of prescribed surface displacement. It is illustrated that these characteristic lines divide the mentioned displacement plane into two regions of positive (i.e., pushing) and negative (i.e., pulling) radiation forces.
In the second strategy, the zero, negative and positive states of radiation force are obtained through adjusting the incident wave field characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) which insonifies the radiator with prescribed pulsation characteristics. It is proved that zero radiation force state occurs for incident wave pressure characteristics belong to specific frequency-dependent circles in Nyquist plane of incident wave pressure. These characteristic circles divide the Nyquist plane into two distinct regions corresponding to positive (out of circles) and negative (in the circles) values of radiation force function. It is analytically shown that the maximum amplitude of negative radiation force is exactly equal to the amplitude of the (positive) radiation force exerted upon the sphere in the passive state, by the same incident field.
The developed concepts are much more deepened by considering the required power supply for distinct cases of zero, negative and positive radiation force states along with the frequency dependent asymmetry index. In addition, considering the effect of phase difference between the incident wave field and the pulsating object, and its possible variation with respect to spatial position of object, some practical points about the spatial average of generated radiation force, the optimal state of operation, the stability of zero radiation force states and the possibly of precise motion control are discussed.
This work would extend the novel concept of smart carriers to and may be helpful for robust single-beam acoustic handling techniques. Furthermore, the shown capability of precise motion control may be considered as a new way toward smart acoustic driven micro-mechanisms and micro-machines.