Over the past few decades, enhanced permeability of tumor vasculature was actively exploited for targeted delivery of anticancer nanomedicines resulting in numerous pharmaceutical products. Formation of new immature and leaky vessels along with inflammatory remodeling of existing vessels accompany development of numerous diseases beyond cancer and present an opportunity for passive accumulation of intravenously administered nanomedicines in many pathological tissues. To date, applications of non-cancerous enhanced permeation have been relatively unexploited as target tissues and may create new therapy and prevention technologies for many disorders. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on the nature of enhanced vascular permeability in multiple non-cancerous pathological tissues. We also discuss the clinical status of nanotherapeutics with selectivity based on passive accumulation in non-cancerous target tissues, their challenges, and prospects.