Peripheral leptochoroid: clinical and anatomical findings

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Abstract

Background/Aims

To investigate the clinical findings and anatomical characteristics of patients with a thinned peripheral choroid (leptochoroid) presenting with bilateral macular geographical hyperpigmented fundus and compare with matched controls.

Methods

A retrospective, observational case series of 44 eyes (24 patients): 22 study eyes (12 study patients) with clinical findings of leptochoroid (geographical hyperpigmented fundus centred in the macula) matched with 22 control eyes (12 control patients). All eyes received enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Two independent observers performed all measurements. Statistical analysis was used to correlate interobserver findings, and compare patient and eye characteristics.

Results

Study patients had a female predominance and median age of 70 years. Iris colour and refractive error of these eyes were varied: 8 eyes were myopic (one of which was highly myopic with a refractive error of −9.00) and 14 eyes were emmetropic or hyperopic (up to+3.00). The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 or better in all study eyes. The geographical macular areas of relative hyperpigmentation correspond to normal choroidal thickness compared with controls (p=0.74). The relative hypopigmented surrounding fundus had significantly thinner choroid compared with controls (p value=0.0001). Choroidal thickness had a strong interobserver correlation (r=0.99, p<0.0001).

Conclusion

Described here is a clinical entity referred to as peripheral leptochoroid. It appears as geographical hyperpigmented fundus centred in the macula, with adjacent relative hypopigmented fundus. Compared with matched normal subjects, the hyperpigmented and hypopigmented fundus correspond with equivocal and decreased choroidal thickness, respectively.

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