It is generally well understood that possible reasons for inconsistent responding on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), as measured by the Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales, include reading or language limitations, cognitive impairment, and intentional random responding; however, the interpretive recommendations for the test suggest that higher scores on these scales can also result from an uncooperative test-taking approach. This study utilized a sample of 3,457 predominately non–head injury disability claimants to examine the association between inconsistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF and performance on cognitive tests as well performance validity tests (PVTs), an independent indicator of uncooperative test-taking attitude. Analysis of variance found that both VRIN-r and TRIN-r were associated with statistically lower cognitive test scores. These analyses also supported that TRIN-r was associated with poor performance on collaterally administered PVTs in a subsample of individuals with average reading levels. Illustrating the practical effects of these results, in follow-up relative risk ratio analyses, individuals with elevations on TRIN-r were at up to five times greater risk of PVT failure than those without elevations. Overall, the results of this study provide some support for the interpretation that inconsistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF is associated not only with cognitive/reading problems or limitations but also an uncooperative test-taking approach, particularly for elevated TRIN-r scores.