Development of MPC-DPA polymeric nanoparticle systems for inhalation drug delivery applications
Inhalation of nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery offers the potential to harness nanomedicine formulations of emerging therapeutics, such as curcumin, for treatment of lung cancer. Biocompatible nanoparticles composed of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-b-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MPC-DPA) have been shown to be suitable nanocarriers for drugs, whilst N-trimethyl chitosan chloride (TMC) coating of nanoparticles has been reported to further enhance their cellular delivery efficacy; the combination of the two has not been previously investigated. Development of effective systems requires the predictable, controllable, and reproducible ability to prepare nanosystems possessing particle sizes, and drug loading capacities, appropriate for successful airway travel, lung tissue penetration, and tumor suppression. Although a number of MPC-DPA based nanosystems have been described, a complete understanding of parameters controlling nanoparticle formation, size, and morphology has not been reported; in particular the effects of differing solvents phases remains unclear. In this current study a matrix of 31 solvent combinations were examined to provide novel data pertaining to the formation of MPC-DPA nanoparticles, and in doing so afforded the selection of systems with particle sizes appropriate for pulmonary delivery applications to be loaded with curcumin, and coated with TMC. This paper presents the first report of novel data detailing the successful preparation, characterisation, and optimisation of MPC-DPA nanoparticles of circa 150–180 nm diameter, with low polydispersity, and a curcumin loading range of circa 2.5–115 μM, tunable by preparation parameters, with and without TMC coating, and thus considered suitable candidates for inhalation drug delivery applications.