Nasal vaccination with poly(β-amino ester)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) hybrid nanoparticles
Mucosal vaccination stimulates both mucosal and systemic immunity. However, mucosal applications of vaccine antigens in their free form generally result in poor systemic immune responses and need adjuvantation. In this study, bovine serum albumin loaded, new hybridised poly(β-amino ester)-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method, characterised and evaluated in vivo as nasal vaccine carriers. Cationic spherical particles with a mean size of 240 nm, good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained. Protein structure was not affected throughout preparation and minimal toxicity was shown in Calu-3 and A549 cells. Nasal vaccination with these nanoparticles revealed markedly higher humoral immune responses compared with free antigen following intranasal and subcutaneous immunisation. Mucosal immune response was also stimulated and cytokine titres indicated that Th1 and Th2 pathways were successfully activated. This study shows that the formulated hybrid nanoparticles can be a promising carrier for nasal immunisation of poor antigenic proteins.