Self-assembly nanostructure controlled sustained release, activity and stability of peptide drugs
Peptides are considered as a new generation of drugs due to their high structural and functional diversity. However, the development of peptide drugs is always limited by their poor stability and short circulation time. Carriers are applied for peptide drug delivery, but there may be problems like poor loading efficiency and undesired xenobiotic toxicity. Peptide self-assembly is an effective approach to improve the stability and control the release of peptide drugs. In this study, two self-assembling anticancer peptides are designed by appending a pair of glutamic acid and asparagine to either the N-terminus or the C-terminus of a lytic peptide. This simple, yet rational sequence modification was made to change the amphiphilic pattern and secondary structural content of the parent peptide, thereby modulating its self-assembly process. It was found that the N-terminus modified peptide favors the formation of nanofibrils and the peptide with C-terminal modification formed micelles. Although both nanostructures showed prolonged action profiles and improved serum stability compared to the parent peptide, the morphology of the nanostructures is highly critical to manipulate the release profile of the free peptide from the assembly and regulate their bioactivity. We believe the self-assembly approach demonstrated in this study can be applied to a variety of therapeutic peptide drugs to improve their stability and therapeutic activity for the development of carrier-free drug delivery system.