In this report a strand specific RT-PCR was established for the detection of the replicative negative RNA strand of poliovirus sabin 1 (Sabin1) and Echovirus 19 (E19) strains. The key for the successful conduction of the assay was the use of a specific reverse transcription primer targeting the 5′-UTR of enteroviruses that consisted of a stem-loop structure at the 5′-end and an enteroviral-specific sequence at the 3′-end. The stem loop RT–PCR was found to be an accurate and sensitive method, detecting even 10−2 CCID50 of poliovirus sabin 1 (Sabin1) and E19 strains 6 h postinfection (p.i.), while CPE appeared 3 days later. This assay was also validated in SiHa and Caski cell lines that are not used for the detection of enteroviruses. The negative RNA strand was detected 6 h and 12 h p.i. in SiHa and Caski cells, when these cell lines were inoculated with 105 and 1 CCID50 respectively, whereas CPE was observed 5 days p.i for SiHa cells and 8 days p.i for Caski cells and that only at 105 CCID50. The results show that this approach may be used for replacing the time-consuming cell cultures in order to detect the active replication of enteroviruses.Significance and Impact of the Study
Enteroviruses are positive stranded RNA viruses that may cause severe diseases. The conventional method for detection of active viral replication involves virus isolation in sensitive cell cultures followed by titration and seroneutralization. In this report, we describe the use of a stem–loop secondary structured oligonucleotide in RT–PCR assay for the detection of the replicative negative strand of the positive-stranded RNA of poliovirus sabin 1 and E19 strains. This approach proved to be a useful tool that may be used for replacing the time-consuming cell culture assays in order to detect the active replication of enteroviruses.