Imaging Adults With Congenital Heart Disease Part II: Advanced CMR Techniques
Because of great strides in medical care, survival into adulthood has become a common expectation in patients suffering from nearly all forms of congenital heart disease. As this aging population expands, the utilization of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in their care continues to grow. Magnetic resonance technology has developed exponentially over the last 2 decades, and several advanced techniques for imaging adults with congenital heart disease have moved from the purely research arena into routine clinical care. In particular, 4-dimensional phase-contrast imaging allows comprehensive hemodynamic assessment, myocardial characterization quantifies fibrosis, stress magnetic resonance imaging detects vulnerable myocardium and hemodynamic reserve, and 3-dimensional modeling enables preinterventional planning, all of which are now widespread in their applications.