Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Atypical Femur Fractures With Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Leads to Faster Union: A Case-Control Study.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To evaluate bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) use in the treatment of AFF.

DESIGN

Retrospective case control.

SETTING

Level 1 trauma center.

PATIENTS

Complete AFF, defined according to American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) criteria, from September 2009 to April 2015 with minimum 1-year follow-up.

INTERVENTION

Operative treatment with antegrade intramedullary nails. Beginning June 2014, BMAC from the ipsilateral iliac crest was added to all AFFs.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS

Time to union as determined by a blinded panel of 3 attending orthopaedic surgeons, union rates, complications.

RESULTS

Thirty-five patients with 36 AFFs were reviewed, of which 33 AFFs were included and 11 received BMAC. Alendronate was the most commonly prescribed bisphosphonate, with a similar mean duration of use in controls and BMAC cases (5.6 versus 6 years, P = 0.79). BMAC use significantly decreased time to union (3.5 versus 6.8 months, P = 0.004). Varus malreduction was associated with a significant delay in union (9.7 versus 4.7 months, P = 0.04). Overall, 1 year union rate was 86.2% and nonsignificantly higher in BMAC compared with controls (100.0% versus 77.3%, P = 0.11). Multivariate analysis revealed BMAC and varus malreduction as independent predictors of time to union. There were no complications related to BMAC use.

CONCLUSION

Our findings support intramedullary nailing of AFFs as an effective treatment option with a low surgical complication rate and highlight the importance of avoiding varus malreduction. BMAC use significantly reduced time to fracture union without an increase in surgical complication rates.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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