Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES

We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF).

DESIGN

Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

SETTING

Level 1 Academic Trauma Center.

PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS

One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients).

INTERVENTION

In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS

Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS

TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days.

CONCLUSIONS

This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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