Anogenital warts (AGW, condylomata acuminata) and intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN) do not only impact health and social well-being, they are also associated with considerable costs for the healthcare systems. Immunocompromised and HIV-positive patients carry the highest epidemiological burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and comprise a population specifically susceptible to treatment failures and recurrences. This systematic review aimed at identifying and appraising the available evidence from controlled studies of interventions for the treatment of AGW and IEN in immunocompromised patients.Methods
We conducted a comprehensive literature search. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool was used to assess risk of bias in included studies. Our confidence in the (pooled) effect-estimates was evaluated according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. All evaluations were based on data independently extracted by two review authors.Results
Nine randomised controlled trials and two controlled studies were eligible, investigating external AGW, intra-anal and/or vaginal warts, and intra-anal and/or perianal IEN. The identified studies assessed imiquimod, cidofovir, fluorouracil, electrocautery, systemic interferon-α and interferon-β, and the combination of intralesional interferon-α and podophyllin. Four studies combined an ablational intervention with either imiquimod, cidofovir, intralesional or systemic interferon-α. One study investigated an experimental therapeutic vaccination (HPV 16 E7) at different concentrations.Conclusions
The quality of the evidence ranged from ‘very low’ to ‘moderate’ and was limited by the often small samples. Evidence was available for the efficacy of electrocautery for intra-anal IEN, and imiquimod cream for external AGW. Some further interventions should be subjected to investigations in larger samples. No data on some interventions established for the treatment of AGW in immunocompetent patients such as podophyllotoxin, sinecatechins, laser ablation or trichloroacetate were available. Future trials should address these gaps and include relevant patient-reported outcomes such as health-related quality of life.