Benefits of Long Versus Short Thrombolysis Times for Acutely Thrombosed Hemodialysis Native Fistulas

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Abstract

Introduction:

Local thrombolysis with a time of exposure to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator of 15 to 150 minutes is commonly used to declot acutely thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas. The duration of thrombolysis for the restoration of arteriovenous blood flow remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcomes of long thrombolysis treatment (LTT, 3 hours or more) and short thrombolysis treatment (STT, less than 3 hours) in our institution.

Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed 86 interventional declotting procedures (28 STT and 58 LTT) applied to 86 acutely thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas. The intervention time (IT) following thrombolysis (from the initial fistulography to the end of the angioplasty maneuvers), the time of day of the intervention (ie, during working hours vs off-hours), and the need for temporary catheter placement (TCP) were assessed. Success was defined as complete access recanalization, and major adverse events were defined as ischemia, bleeding, and access rupture.

Results:

The ITs were reduced after LTT (63.3 [9.3] minutes) compared to STT (106.7 [24.7], P = .01), but there was no difference in success rate (85.7% STT, 89.7% LTT, P = .722). While all (100%, 58/58) of the angioplasty maneuvers after LTT were performed during regular working hours, 75% (21/28) of those following STT were managed during off-hours (P < .001). Despite the longer treatment, the need for TCP was not increased after LTT (10.7%) compared to STT (12.1%, P = .515), and the major complication rate was reduced (3.4% after LTT and 28.6% after STT, P = .004).

Conclusion:

Long thrombolysis treatment results in shorter and less complicated percutaneous stenosis treatments during regular working hours. Despite the LTT of up to 25 hours until access for dialysis was achieved, no increase in the risks of TCP or major adverse events were observed following LTT.

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