Flipped Classrooms in Graduate Medical Education: A National Survey of Residency Program Directors

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Abstract

Purpose

To begin to quantify and understand the use of the flipped classroom (FC)—a progressive, effective, curricular model—in internal medicine (IM) education in relation to residency program and program director (PD) characteristics.

Method

The authors conducted a survey that included the Flipped Classroom Perception Instrument (FCPI) in 2015 regarding programs’ use and PDs’ perceptions of the FC model.

Results

Among the 368 IM residency programs, PDs at 227 (61.7%) responded to the survey and 206 (56.0%) completed the FCPI. Regarding how often programs used the FC model, 34 of the 206 PDs (16.5%) reported “never”; 44 (21.4%) reported “very rarely”; another 44 (21.4%) reported “somewhat rarely”; 59 (28.6%) reported “sometimes”; 16 (7.8%) reported “somewhat often”; and 9 (4.4%) reported “very often.” The mean FCPI score (standard deviation [SD]) for the in-class application factor (4.11 [0.68]) was higher (i.e., more favorable) than for the preclass activity factor (3.94 [0.65]) (P < .001). FC perceptions (mean [SD]) were higher among younger PDs (≤ 50 years, 4.12 [0.62]; > 50 years, 3.94 [0.61]; P = .04) and women compared with men (4.28 [0.56] vs. 3.91 [0.62]; P < .001). PDs with better perceptions of FCs had higher odds of using FCs (odds ratio, 4.768; P < .001).

Conclusions

Most IM programs use the FC model at least to some extent, and PDs prefer the interactive in-class components over the independent preclass activities. PDs who are women and younger perceived the model more favorably.

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