Fatal lactic acidosis in hepatitis B virus-associated decompensated cirrhosis treated with tenofovir: A case report

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Abstract

Rationale:

Recently tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been widely used as a first-line therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Although TDF demonstrates successful viral suppression, the possibility of renal failure and lactic acidosis has been proposed with TDF administration, especially in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients. However, TDF induced lactic acidosis has never been reported in CHB mono-infected patients.

Patient concerns:

A 59-year-old man received TDF for hepatitis B associated with cirrhosis. After ten days of TDF administration, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain developed. High anion gap acidosis with elevated lactate level (pH 7.341, pCO2 29.7 mmHg, HCO3- 15.6mmHg, lactate 3.2mmol/L, anion gap 15.4 mEq/L) was developed.

Diagnosis:

With no infection, normal diagnostic paracentesis, and urinalysis together with high anion gap and increased blood lactate levels suggested lactic acidosis.

Interventions:

TDF was stopped, and haemodialysis was performed to control lactic acidosis.

Outcomes:

Although stopping TDF instantly and treating lactic acidosis using hemodialysis, the patient died.

Lessons:

Although, Fatal lactic acidosis is very rare in TDF patient, however, decompensated cirrhotic patients should be closely observed to keep the possibility of lactic acidosis in mind.

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