A Standardized Approach for Transfusion Medicine Support in Patients With Morbidly Adherent Placenta
The incidence of placenta accreta (PA) has increased from 0.8 to 3.0 in 1000 pregnancies, driven by increased rates of cesarean deliveries (32.2% in 2014) of births in the United States. The average blood loss for a delivery complicated by PA ranges from 2000 to 5000 mL, frequently requiring substantial transfusion medicine support. We report our own institutional multidisciplinary approach for managing such patients, along with transfusion medicine outcomes, in this setting over a 5-year period.METHODS:
We reviewed records for patients referred to our program in placental disorders from July 1, 2009, to July 1, 2014. A placental disorders preoperative checklist was implemented to ensure optimal management of patients with peripartum hemorrhage.RESULTS:
Of 136 patients whose placentas were reviewed postpartum, 21 had PA, 39 had microscopic PA, 17 had increta, 17 had percreta, and 42 had no accreta (of which 11 had placenta previa). For each subtype, the percentage of patients receiving blood products were 71% (PA), 28% (microscopic PA), 82% (increta), 82% (percreta), and 19% (no accreta). Among patients with PA or variants, 89% of patients with PA or variants underwent postpartum hysterectomy, compared to only 5% of patients with no or microscopic PA.CONCLUSIONS:
Based on our experience and on the findings of our retrospective analysis, patients presenting with either antepartum radiological evidence or clinical suspicion of morbidly adherent placenta will benefit from a standardized protocol for clinical management, including transfusion medicine support. We found that massive hemorrhage is predictable when abnormal placentation is identified predelivery and that blood product support is substantial regardless of the degree of placental invasiveness. The protocol at our institution provides immediate access to sufficient volumes and types of blood products at delivery for patients at highest risk for life-threatening obstetric hemorrhage. Therefore, for patients with a diagnosis of morbidly adherent placenta scheduled for planned cesarean delivery with possible hysterectomy, a programmatic checklist that mobilizes a multidisciplinary team, including proactive transfusion medicine support, represents best practices.