Soluble CD14 Subtype—A New Biomarker in Predicting the Outcome of Critically Ill Septic Patients

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Abstract

Background

We evaluated the role of presepsin (soluble CD14 subtype, sCD14-ST) in predicting the outcome of critically ill septic patients in parallel with procalcitonin and C-reactive protein.

Methods

This study was an observational, prospective study that enrolled 58 surgical and medical intensive care unit patients with suspected sepsis. All studied subjects were retrospectively stratified into survivors and nonsurvivors based on 28 days survival and according to microbiological results in blood culture positive and negative groups. Plasma and serum samples from each patient were collected at admission (T-0), after 24-48 hours (T-1) and after 7 days (T-2). Statistics were obtained using Student's t test and ANOVA, as well as Bonferroni post hoc test. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed.

Results

Presepsin levels were significantly higher at T-0 (P = 0.0007), at T-1 (P < 0.0001) and at T-2 (P < 0.0001) in nonsurvivors versus survivors at the same time point. Presepsin concentrations were significantly increased at T-0 (P = 0.0073), T1 (P = 0.0111) and T2 (P = 0.0167) in patients with positive blood cultures in comparison to patients with negative cultures at the same time. For all time periods evaluated, presepsin data from nonsurviving and surviving individuals were subjected to ROC analysis that demonstrated an excellent accuracy and significant area under the ROC curve (P < 0.0001). Results of multivariate analysis indicated presepsin as a predictive independent variable among prognosis markers at T-0 (P = 0.016).

Conclusions

Presepsin revealed an optimal prognostic performance in patients with severe sepsis and provided interesting diagnostic value. Prediction of outcome in critically ill patients is crucial to optimize management decisions and level of treatment.

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