Fenofibrate Attenuates Hypertension in Goldblatt Hypertensive Rats: Role of 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid in the Nonclipped Kidney

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Abstract

Background

There is vast evidence that the renin-angiotensin system is not the sole determinant of blood pressure (BP) elevation in human renovascular hypertension or the relevant experimental models. This study tested the hypothesis that kidney deficiency of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a product of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent ω-hydroxylase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism, is important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2-kidney, 1-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension.

Materials and Methods

In 2K1C Goldblatt rats with established hypertension, angiotensin II, angiotensin 1-7, 20-HETE concentrations and gene expression of CYP4A1 enzyme (responsible for 20-HETE formation) of the nonclipped kidney were determined. We examined if 14 days' administration of fenofibrate, a lipid-lowering drug, would increase CYP4A1 gene expression and renal 20-HETE formation, and if increased 20-HETE concentrations in the nonclipped kidney would decrease BP (telemetric measurements).

Results

CYP4A1 gene expression, 20-HETE and angiotensin 1-7 concentrations were lower and angiotensin II levels were higher in the nonclipped kidney of 2K1C rats than in sham-operated rats. Fenofibrate increased CYP4A1 gene expression and 20-HETE concentration in the nonclipped kidney and significantly decreased BP in 2K1C rats but did not restore it to normotensive range. The treatment did not change BP in sham-operated rats.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that alterations in the RAS and CYP-dependent ω-hydroxylase metabolites of arachidonic acid in the nonclipped kidneys are both important in the pathophysiology of the maintenance phase of 2K1C Goldblatt hypertension. Therefore, fenofibrate treatment effectively attenuated hypertension, probably via stimulation of 20-HETE formation in the nonclipped kidney.

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