Mediator 1 Is Atherosclerosis Protective by Regulating Macrophage Polarization

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Abstract

Objective—

MED1 (mediator 1) interacts with transcription factors to regulate transcriptional machinery. The role of MED1 in macrophage biology and the relevant disease state remains to be investigated.

Approach and Results—

To study the molecular mechanism by which MED1 regulates the M1/M2 phenotype switch of macrophage and the effect on atherosclerosis, we generated MED1/apolipoprotein E (ApoE) double-deficient (MED1ΔMac/ApoE−/−) mice and found that atherosclerosis was greater in MED1ΔMac/ApoE−/− mice than in MED1fl/fl/ApoE−/− littermates. The gene expression of M1 markers was increased and that of M2 markers decreased in both aortic wall and peritoneal macrophages from MED1ΔMac/ApoE−/− mice, whereas MED1 overexpression rectified the changes in M1/M2 expression. Moreover, LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor)–deficient mice received bone marrow from MED1ΔMac mice showed greater atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, MED1 ablation decreased the binding of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ) and enrichment of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac to upstream region of M2 marker genes. Furthermore, interleukin 4 induction of PPARγ and MED1 increased the binding of PPARγ or MED1 to the PPAR response elements of M2 marker genes.

Conclusions—

Our data suggest that MED1 is required for the PPARγ-mediated M2 phenotype switch, with M2 marker genes induced but M1 marker genes suppressed. MED1 in macrophages has an antiatherosclerotic role via PPARγ-regulated transactivation.

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