Alzheimer’s disease leads to progressive cognitive function loss, which may impair both intellectual capacities and psychosocial aspects. Although the current knowledge points to a multifactorial character of Alzheimer’s disease, the most issued pathological hypothesis remains the cholinergic theory. The main animal model used in cholinergic theory research is the scopolamine-induced memory loss model. Although, in some cases, a temporary symptomatic relief can be obtained through targeting the cholinergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, no current treatment is able to stop or slow cognitive impairment. Many potentially successful therapies are often blocked by the blood–brain barrier since it exhibits permeability only for several classes of active molecules. However, the plant extracts’ active molecules are extremely diverse and heterogeneous regarding the biochemical structure. In this way, many active compounds constituting the recently tested plant extracts may exhibit the same general effect on acetylcholine pathway, but on different molecular ground, which can be successfully used in Alzheimer’s disease adjuvant therapy.