Serum androgen profile and physical performance in women Olympic athletes

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Abstract

Background

The role of endogenous androgens for body composition and physical performance in women athletes is still not elucidated.

Aim

To examine the serum androgen profile in relation to body composition and physical performance in women Olympic athletes and to compare endocrine variables and body composition to controls.

Study design

Cross-sectional study, conducted between 2011 and 2015 at the Women’s Health Research Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.

Methods

Swedish women Olympic athletes (n=106) and age-matched and body mass index-matched sedentary controls (n=117) were included in the study. Blood sampling was performed in a rested, fasting state for the measurement of serum androgens and their metabolites by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (controls n=100, athletes n=65). The athletes performed standardised performance tests (n=59) (squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ).

Results

The athletes demonstrated significantly higher levels of the precursor androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (5-DIOL) and the metabolite etiocholanolone glucuronide (Etio-G), significantly lower levels of estrone (p<0.05, respectively), higher bone mineral density (p<0.001) and more lean mass (p<0.001) compared with controls. Serum levels of DHEA, 5-DIOL and Etio-G correlated positively to lean mass variables and physical performance in the athletes. DHEA and lean mass legs explained 66% of the variance in SJ, whereas lean mass explained 52% of the variance in CMJ.

Conclusions

The present data suggest that endogenous androgens are associated with a more anabolic body composition and enhanced performance in women athletes. These results are of importance for the current discussion regarding hyperandrogenism in women athletes.

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