Oxygen–Flow–Pressure Targets for Resuscitation in Critical Hemodynamic Therapy
Far from traditional “vital signs,” the field of hemodynamic monitoring (HM) is rapidly developing. However, it is also easy to misunderstand hemodynamic therapy as merely HM and some concrete bundles or guidelines for circulation support. Here, we describe the concept of “critical hemodynamic therapy” and clarify the concepts of the “therapeutic target” and “therapeutic endpoint” in clinical practice. Three main targets (oxygen delivery, blood flow, perfusion pressure) for resuscitation are reviewed in critically ill patients according to the sepsis guidelines and hemodynamic consensus. ScvO2 at least 70% has not been recommended as a directed target for initial resuscitation, and the directed target of mean arterial pressure (MAP) still is 65 mmHg. Moreover, the individual MAP target is underlined, and using flow-dependent monitoring to guide fluid infusion is recommended. The flow-directed target for fluid infusion might be a priority, but it remains controversial in resuscitation. The interpretation of these targets is necessary for adequate resuscitation and the correction of tissue hypoxia. The incoherence phenomenon of resuscitation (macrocirculation and microcirculation, tissue perfusion, and cellular oxygen utilization) is gaining increased attention, and early identification of these incoherences might be helpful to reduce the risk of over-resuscitation.