Perceived facial changes of Class II Division 1 patients with convex profiles after functional orthopedic treatment followed by fixed orthodontic appliances

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Abstract

Introduction:

The aim of this research was to investigate the perceived facial changes in Class II Division 1 patients with convex profiles after functional orthopedic treatment followed by fixed orthodontic appliances.

Methods:

Pretreatment and posttreatment profile photographs of 12 Class II Division 1 patients treated with activators, 12 Class II Division 1 patients treated with Twin-block appliances, and 12 controls with normal profiles treated without functional appliances were presented in pairs to 10 orthodontists, 10 patients, 10 parents, and 10 laypersons. The raters assessed changes in facial appearance on a visual analog scale. Two-way multivariate analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences among group ratings.

Results:

Intrarater reliability was strong in most cases (intraclass correlation coefficients, >0.7). The internal consistency of the assessments was high (alpha, >0.87), both within and between groups. The raters consistently perceived more positive changes in the Class II Division 1 groups compared with the control group. However, this difference hardly exceeded 1/10th of the total visual analog scale length in its highest value and was mostly evident in the lower face and chin. No significant differences were found between the activator and the Twin-block groups.

Conclusions:

Although the raters perceived improvements of the facial profiles after functional orthopedic treatment followed by fixed orthodontic appliances, these were quite limited. Thus, orthodontists should be tentative when predicting significant improvement of a patient's profile with this treatment option.

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