Hardystonite-Coated Poly(l-lactide) Nanofibrous Scaffold and Efficient Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
In this study, a ceramic-coated nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated to biomimic the microstructure of natural extracellular matrix and the stiffening inorganic compartment of bone. Poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanofibers were electrospun and exposed to oxygen plasma to induce hydrophilicity and promote ceramic adsorption. Hardystonite (HS), which possesses superior osteoinduction potential over hydroxyapatite, was coated on plasma-treated PLLA nanofibers by drenching the nanofibers in HS suspension. Pure and composite PLLA-based scaffolds were characterized in terms of physical and biological properties. In vitro cultivation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) on the scaffolds displayed that the composite scaffold is able to further support cell attachment and proliferation. In case of osteogenic differentiation of AMSCs, HS coating significantly increased the synthesis and activity of alkaline phosphate over 21 days period. In addition, the composite scaffold showed improved mineralization. The expression level of osteonectin and osteocalcin genes was significantly enhanced by HS coating of nanofibers. The biological improvement of PLLA nanofibrous matrix in the presence of HS nanoparticles could either be attributed to the release and stimulatory effect of constituent ions of HS or to the modification of chemico-physical properties of the resultant ceramic by silicon and zinc present in HS.