Impact of Sexual Violence Across the Lifespan on HIV Risk Behaviors Among Transgender Women and Cisgender People Living With HIV
To examine sexual violence across the lifespan among transgender and cisgender people living with HIV and its associations with recent risk behaviors.Setting:
Seven community-based sites serving priority populations disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, including major metropolitan areas in the West and East Coast, as well as the suburban Mid-Atlantic and rural Southeastern regions.Methods:
From 2013 to 2016, baseline survey data were collected from participants (N = 583) of a multisite community-based HIV linkage to/retention in care study conducted at 7 sites across the United States. Adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models with random effect for site-assessed associations of sexual violence and gender identity with risk outcomes including condomless sex, sex trade involvement, and substance use–related harms.Results:
One-third of participants reported a history of sexual violence; transgender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6 to 10.1] and cisgender women (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.4) were more likely than cisgender men to experience sexual violence. Sexual violence was associated with experiencing drug-related harms (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5). Transgender women were more likely than cisgender men to have sold sex (AOR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.7 to 50.0).Conclusions:
A history of sexual violence is common among transgender and cisgender women PLWH, and it increases risk for drug-related harms. Transgender women are also more likely to report selling sex.