Association between periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases: A 12-year longitudinal health-examinee cohort study in South Korea
The National Health Insurance Service–Health Examinee Cohort during 2002 to 2013 was used to investigate the associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the following non-communicable diseases (NCDs): hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and obesity.
Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders during the follow-up period—including age, sex, household income, insurance status, residence area, health status, and comorbidities—were used to estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in order to assess the associations between PD and NCDs.
We enrolled 200,026 patients with PD and 154,824 subjects with a healthy oral status. Statistically, significant associations were found between PD and the investigated NCDs except for cerebral and myocardial infarction after adjusting for sociodemographic and comorbidity factors (P < .05). In particular, obesity (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.04–1.63, P = .022), osteoporosis (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.18–1.27, P < .001), and angina pectoris (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.17–1.27, P < .001) were significantly and positively associated with PD.
This longitudinal cohort study has provided evidence that patients with PD are at increased risk of NCDs. Further studies are required to confirm the reliability of this association and elucidate the role of the inflammatory pathway in periodontitis pathogenesis as a triggering and mediating mechanism.