Environmental Contaminants Affecting Fertility and Somatic Health
This review article summarizes the epidemiological findings published between 2011 and 2016 concerning bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, dioxins, pesticides, air pollution, fracking chemicals, triclosan, and parabens and fertility parameters in men (i.e., semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm morphology) as well as fertility parameters in women (i.e., cyclicity, fertility treatment outcomes), pregnancy outcomes (i.e., preterm birth, miscarriage), and reproductive disorders (i.e., polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, and uterine fibroids). Overall, this review indicates that several environmental toxicants are significantly associated with reduced fertility parameters in men and women as well as several reproductive disorders in women. Although many studies reported that the selected exposures are associated with adverse fertility outcomes, several studies reported null associations. Thus, future studies are still needed to better elucidate the associations and potential mechanisms between these environmental chemicals and fertility outcomes in men and women.