Risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus in primary aldosteronism: a population study over 5 years

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Abstract

Objective:

Abnormal glucose metabolism due to insulin resistance has been linked to aldosterone overproduction. However, the long-term incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) among patients with primary aldosteronism after targeted treatment has not been well documented.

Methods:

The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension were identified, and then the occurrence of NODM, all-cause mortality among these patients, was ascertained by a validated algorithm from a 23-million population insurance registry.

Results:

From 1999 to 2007, 2367 primary aldosteronism patients without previously diabetes mellitus were identified and propensity score-matched with 9468 patients with essential hypertension. Among those primary aldosteronism patients, 754 aldosterone-producing adenomas patients were identified and matched with 3016 essential hypertension controls. After a mean 5.2 years of follow-up, primary aldosteronism patients who underwent adrenalectomy had an attenuated NODM incidence (hazard ratio = 0.60, P < 0.01, versus essential hypertension); whereas those treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist had augmented risk of NODM (hazard ratio = 1.16, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). Among the aldosterone-producing adenoma patients, adrenalectomy is also protective from developing NODM (hazard ratio = 0.61, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension), however, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment did not alter the risk of NODM (P = 0.10, versus essential hypertension). Adjusted hazard ratios for long-term risk of mortality from this analysis revealed that adrenalectomy is protective, but NODM and major cardiovascular disease are deleterious.

Conclusion:

The primary aldosteronism patients who underwent adrenalectomy had reduced risk for incident NODM and all-cause of mortality, compared with matched hypertensive controls. This observation adds more evidence on the association of primary aldosteronism with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and long-term mortality.

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