Risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus in primary aldosteronism: a population study over 5 years

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Abnormal glucose metabolism due to insulin resistance has been linked to aldosterone overproduction. However, the long-term incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) among patients with primary aldosteronism after targeted treatment has not been well documented.


The diagnosis of primary aldosteronism and essential hypertension were identified, and then the occurrence of NODM, all-cause mortality among these patients, was ascertained by a validated algorithm from a 23-million population insurance registry.


From 1999 to 2007, 2367 primary aldosteronism patients without previously diabetes mellitus were identified and propensity score-matched with 9468 patients with essential hypertension. Among those primary aldosteronism patients, 754 aldosterone-producing adenomas patients were identified and matched with 3016 essential hypertension controls. After a mean 5.2 years of follow-up, primary aldosteronism patients who underwent adrenalectomy had an attenuated NODM incidence (hazard ratio = 0.60, P < 0.01, versus essential hypertension); whereas those treated with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist had augmented risk of NODM (hazard ratio = 1.16, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension). Among the aldosterone-producing adenoma patients, adrenalectomy is also protective from developing NODM (hazard ratio = 0.61, P < 0.001, versus essential hypertension), however, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment did not alter the risk of NODM (P = 0.10, versus essential hypertension). Adjusted hazard ratios for long-term risk of mortality from this analysis revealed that adrenalectomy is protective, but NODM and major cardiovascular disease are deleterious.


The primary aldosteronism patients who underwent adrenalectomy had reduced risk for incident NODM and all-cause of mortality, compared with matched hypertensive controls. This observation adds more evidence on the association of primary aldosteronism with a higher risk of metabolic syndrome and long-term mortality.

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