Family history of cardiometabolic diseases and its association with arterial stiffness in the Malmö Diet Cancer cohort
Arterial stiffening increases with age and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Several risk factors have been shown to predict the development of arterial stiffening; however, a positive family history (FH+) of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) and hypertension has not been extensively studied. We hypothesize that FH+ of CMD plays a significant role in the development of arterial stiffening in offspring.Methods:
We used data from the population-based Malmö Diet Cancer study (n = 3056) examined in 1992–1996 and again in 2007–2012. Several variables were analysed, including anthropometrics, carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity and FH+. The association between FH+ of CMD and arterial stiffening in the offspring was analysed with analysis of covariance in SPSS. FH+ was subdivided into three categories: family history for cardiovascular events (FH-CVEs), family history for diabetes mellitus type 2 (FH-DM2) and family history for hypertension (FH-HT). The first analysis of covariance-model was adjusted for age, sex, mean arterial pressure and heart rate; the second model additionally adjusted for self-reported medical history in the offspring.Results:
Data indicated that FH-CVE (F = 14.64, P < 0.001), FH-DM2 (F = 18.57, P < 0.001) and FH-HT (F = 13.92, P < 0.001) all significantly increased carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity levels. The results remained when additional adjustment was made for confounders and for self-reported CMD in the index participants, respectively, for FH-CVE (F = 12.47, P < 0.001), FH-DM2 (F = 7.62, P = 0.006) as well as for FH-HT (F = 7.30, P = 0.007).Conclusion:
These findings indicate that a FH+ of cardiometabolic conditions and hypertension affects arterial stiffness in offspring independently of haemodynamic factors and self-reported CMD in the offspring without sex differences.