Prestes, J, Nascimento, DdC, Neto, IVS, Tibana, RA, Shiguemoto, GE, Perez, SEA, Botero, JP, Schoenfeld, BJ, and Pereira, GB. The effects of muscle strength responsiveness to periodized resistance training on resistin, leptin, and cytokine in elderly postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 113–120, 2018—The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle strength responsiveness and to determine whether interleukin 4 (IL-4), leptin, and resistin would be affected by the individual pattern of response to a resistance training (RT) periodization program. Twenty-six elderly postmenopausal women participated in the present study (mean age = 62.57 ± 6.69 years and body mass index = 28.09 ± 4.83 kg·m−2). Four-month longitudinal training program was performed consisting of 2 whole-body sessions per week with increasing intensity and decreasing volume by using 6–14 repetitions maximum (RM). Two acute whole-body RT sessions (before and after chronic training) were also performed comprising 3 sets of 12–14RM. The responsiveness was determined based on their relative muscle strength gains in 45° leg press. High responders were defined as relative muscle strength gains ≥32% and low responders <32% (n = 13 in each group). Muscle strength increased by a higher amount in the high-responsive group as compared with the low-responsive group in the 45° leg press and bench press, whereas muscle strength increased for both groups when compared with pretraining evaluation (p = 0.001). Low responders displayed higher plasma leptin levels when compared with high responders at baseline (p = 0.001), and after 16 weeks of training, leptin levels were significantly lower when compared with baseline (pretraining period). Both groups displayed a decrease in baseline resistin values after 16 weeks of RT, but only a statistically simple main effect was observed for low responders. In addition, there were no effect of time and no significant interaction between the responsiveness and time on IL-4 concentration. In conclusion, RT is effective in improving upper and lower limb muscle strength in elderly women, with higher magnitudes of increase seen for those classified as high responders. Resistin and leptin displayed a decrease over time, regardless of responsiveness classification.