Cardiac Events and the Maximum Diameter of Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease

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Abstract

Objectives

To clarify the occurrence of cardiac events based on the maximal diameter of the maximal coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) in Kawasaki disease (KD).

Study design

Two hundred fourteen patients (160 male and 54 female) who had had at least 1 CAA in the selective coronary angiogram less than 100 days after the onset of KD were studied. We measured the maximal CAA diameters in the major branches of the initial coronary angiograms. Death, myocardial infarction and coronary artery revascularization were included as cardiac events in this study. We divided the patients into three groups based on the maximal CAA diameter (large ≥8.0 mm; medium ≥6.0 mm and <8.0 mm; small <6.0 mm). Further, we also analyzed the cardiac events based on laterality of maximal CAA (bilateral, unilateral) and body surface area (BSA).

Results

Cardiac events occurred in 44 patients (21%). For BSA < 0.50 m2, the 30-year cardiac event-free survival in the large and medium groups was 66% (n = 38, 95% CI, 49–80) and 62% (n = 27, 95% CI, 38–81), respectively. For BSA ≥ 0.50 m2, that in large group was 54% (n = 58, 95% CI, 40–67). There were no cardiac events in the medium group for BSA ≥0.50 m2 (n = 36) and the small group (n = 56). In the large analyzed group, the 30-year cardiac event-free survival in the bilateral and unilateral groups was 40% (n = 48, 95% CI, 27–55) and 78% (n = 48, 95% CI, 63–89), respectively (P < .0001).

Conclusions

The group with the highest risk of cardiac events was the patient group with the maximal CAA diameter ≥6.0 mm with BSA < 0.50 m2 and the maximal CAA diameter ≥8.0 mm with BSA ≥ 0.50 m2. At 30 years after the onset of KD, cardiac event-free survival was about 60%. Given the high rate of cardiac events in this patient population, life-long cardiovascular surveillance is advised.

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