Comparative outcomes of outpatient and inpatient total shoulder arthroplasty: AN ANALYSIS OF THE MEDICARE DATASET

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The aim of the present study was to compare the 30- and 90-day re-admission rates and complication rates of outpatient and inpatient total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA).

Patients and Methods

The United States Medicare Standard Analytical Files database was questioned to identify patients who had undergone outpatient or inpatient TSA between 2005 and 2012. Patient characteristics were compared between the two groups using chi-squared analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to control for differences in baseline patient characteristics and to compare the two groups in terms of post-operative complications within 90 days and re-admission within 30 days and 90 days.


A total of 123 347 Medicare subscribers underwent TSA between 2005 and 2012; 3493 (2.8%) had the procedure performed as an outpatient. A significantly greater proportion of patients who underwent TSA as inpatients were women, had a history of smoking, and had a greater incidence of medical comorbidity including diabetes, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic kidney disease (p < 0.05 for all). Re-admission rates were significantly higher for inpatients at both 30 days (0.83%versus0.60%, p = 0.016, odds ratio 1.8) and 90 days (2.87%versus2.04%, p < 0.001, odds ratio 1.8). Complications, including thromboembolic events (p < 0.001) and surgical site infection (p = 0.002), were significantly higher in inpatients.


Patients who underwent TSA on an outpatient basis were overall younger and healthier than those who had inpatient surgery, which suggests that patient selection was taking place. After controlling for age, gender, and medical conditions, patients who underwent TSA as outpatients had lower rates of 30- and 90-day re-admission and a lower rate of complications than inpatients.

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