AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION AND THE RISK OF ALL-CAUSE AND CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies
We evaluated the association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by meta-analyses of data from prospective studies.Methods:
A literature search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cocharne Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for relevant articles published up to December 2016. We estimated hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals with fixed-effect models and conducted meta-regression to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity. Small-study effect was estimated by Egger's test and funnel plot.Results:
We identified 13 population-based prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between AMD and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Overall, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality associated with any AMD were 1.15 (1.05–1.27) and 1.05 (95% confidence intervals: 0.87–1.26), respectively. The risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality associated with early AMD were 1.08 (1.00–1.18) and 1.05 (0.89–1.24), and the associations with late AMD were 1.23 (1.11–1.36) and 1.28 (1.04–1.57), respectively. No evidence of small-study effect was found.Conclusion:
This meta-analysis indicated that AMD, especially late AMD, was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality based on comparisons with people who did not have AMD and who were of similar age and sex.