Overstenting the hypogastric artery during endovascular aneurysm repair with and without prior coil embolization: A comparative analysis from the ENGAGE Registry
Endovascular aneurysm repair of aortoiliac or iliac aneurysms is often performed with stent graft coverage of the origin of the hypogastric artery (HA) to ensure adequate distal seal. It is considered common practice to perform adjunctive coiling of the HA to prevent a type II endoleak. Our objective was to question the necessity of pre-emptive coiling by comparing the outcomes of HA coverage with and without prior coil embolization.Methods
Data from the Endurant Stent Graft Natural Selection Global Postmarket Registry (ENGAGE), which prospectively enrolled 1263 endovascular aneurysm repair patients between March 2009 and April 2011 from multiple centers worldwide, were used for this study. We identified patients in whom the Endurant stent graft (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, Calif) covered one or both HAs and grouped them into cases in which prior HA embolization—coils or plugs—was performed (CE) and cases in which HA embolization was not performed (NE). The occurrence of covered HA-related endoleak and secondary interventions were compared between groups.Results
In 197 patients, 225 HAs were covered. Ninety-one HAs were covered after coil embolization (CE group), and 134 HAs were covered without prior coil embolization (NE group). Both groups were similar at baseline and had comparable length of follow-up to last image (665.2 ± 321.7 days for CE patients; 641.6 ± 327.6 days for NE patients; P = .464). Importantly, both groups showed equivalent iliac morphology concerning common iliac artery proximal, mid, and distal dimensions and tortuosity, making them suitable for comparative analysis. During follow-up, HA-related endoleaks were sparse and occurred equally often in both groups (CE 5.5% vs NE 3.0%; P = .346). Secondary intervention to resolve an HA-related endoleak was performed twice in the CE group and three times in the NE group. Late non-HA-related endoleaks occurred more often in the CE group compared with the NE group, (25.0% vs 15.0%; P = .080). Secondary interventions for other reasons than HA-related endoleaks occurred in 7.5% of NE cases and 15.4% of CE cases (P = .057), mostly for occlusions in the ipsilateral iliac limb. During follow-up, 19 NE patients and 9 CE patients died, which is not significantly different (P = .225), and no deaths were related directly or indirectly to HA coverage. Also, no reports of gluteal necrosis and bowel ischemia were made.Conclusions
This study shows that HA coverage with the Endurant endograft without prior coil embolization does not increase the incidence of endoleak or related secondary interventions. These findings together with the already available evidence suggest that omission of coil embolization may be a more resource-effective strategy whenever HA coverage is required.