Activation of murine macrophages by G1-4A, a polysaccharide fromTinospora cordifolia, in TLR4/MyD88 dependent manner
Macrophages are centrally placed in the innate immune system and their activation is crucial to the generation of appropriate immune response in the event of any pathogenic invasion, tumorigenesis or other human diseases. Many plant derived polysaccharides are known to activate macrophages. In the present study, effects of G1-4A, a polysaccharide derived from Tinospora cordifolia, on the activation of macrophages were investigated. Our data demonstrated the up regulation of expression of TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-10 and IFN-γ in RAW 264.7 cell line and peritoneal macrophages after G-14A treatment. Nitric oxide levels were also enhanced along with up-regulation of NOS2 expression in murine macrophages post G1-4A treatment. Further, G1-4A treatment up-regulated the surface expression of MHC-II and CD-86 in macrophages. Using siRNA against TLR4, MyD88 and anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies, we established that G1-4A activated macrophages by classical pathway in TLR4-MyD88 dependent manner. Additionally, G1-4A treatment activated p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs in macrophages. Using pharmaceutical inhibitors of above MAPKs we concluded that G1-4A activates the macrophages by activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs in RAW264.7 macrophages. Thus our data suggests the activation of macrophages by classical pathway after treatment of G1-4A.