The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a 70% ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris (ESE) on varicella-zoster virus (VZV) replication and identify the specific bioactive component(s) underlying its activity. ESE induced a significant reduction in replication of the clinical strain of VZV. Activity-guided fractionation indicated that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of ESE contains the active compound(s) inhibiting VZV replication. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Electrospray Ionization Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) analysis of the EtOAc fraction of ESE facilitated the identification of 13 chemical components. Among these, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (PGG) markedly suppressed VZV-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, expression of viral immediate-early 62 (IE62) protein and VZV replication. Our results collectively support the utility of PGG as a potential candidate anti-viral drug to treat VZV-associated diseases.