Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions.Objective
To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement.Methods
The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality.Results
A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P < .001) and had more comorbid conditions (median Charlson Comorbidity Index, 3 vs 2; P < .001). Patients in the transcatheter group also had lower incidence (19% vs 21%; P = .65) and odds of delirium developing (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.9; P = .03). Delirium was independently associated with a 3-fold higher mortality by 6 months (hazard ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.3–8.8; P = .01).Conclusions
Delirium occurs in at least 1 in 5 patients after transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups.