Microsurgical varicocelectomy for clinical varicocele: A review for potential new indications

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Microsurgical varicocelectomy is considered the gold-standard technique treating varicocele in both adults and adolescents, due to relatively more favourable outcomes and lower post-operative recurrence and complication rates. Despite of mounting literature on this topic, several aspects are still not well defined. We summarised the most recent literature and presented findings that might extend its indications. Microsurgical varicocelectomy and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are both effective to father a child for infertile men with clinical varicocele even for those with worst condition of spermatozoa, nonobstructive azoospermia, and prior varicocele repair has substantial benefits for couples with a clinical varicocele. Microsurgical subinguinal and inguinal varicocelectomy seem to have comparable effectiveness for adolescents and infertile men with varicoceles. However, the subinguinal approach may have some advantages to deal with painful varicocele. The superior outcomes of bilateral varicocelectomy for patients with clinical left varicocele and concomitant clinical right varicocele are justified, while the benefit is still uncertain for concomitant subclinical right varicocele. Varicocelectomy may have the potential to improve sexual function along with serum testosterone. In conclusion, indications for microsurgical varicocelectomy may be extended by the concomitant right and left clinical varicocele and sexual dysfunction with varicocele.

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