Development of the Korean Pregnancy Stress Scale

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This study was conducted in order to develop and evaluate a Pregnancy Stress Scale (PSS).


The PSS was developed according to Devellis’ scale development process. Data that were collected from 388 pregnant women were used to evaluate the validity and reliability of the tool. An item analysis, factor analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and Cronbach's α were used.


The PSS comprised seven factors that can be applied to all pregnant women, with one additional factor that is dedicated specifically for working pregnant women, resulting in a total of eight factors with 43 items: physical and psychological changes, coping in daily life, health of the mother and baby, maternal role, family support, healthcare services, social atmosphere, and reconciliation of work life. The criterion validity was supported by the Revised Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The reliability of the overall scale was adequate.


This scale would be useful for understanding the complex factors that contribute to pregnant women's stress and also would contribute to the process of developing nursing interventions to reduce pregnancy stress.

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