Acute Myeloid Leukemia in a Patient With X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

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Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a defect in the differentiation and function of T cells. An increased malignancy risk, mainly lymphatic malignancy, has been described in patients with SCID. We report a patient with X-linked SCID who developed acute myeloid leukemia, derived from the recipient with somatic NRAS mutation 4 months after cord blood transplantation (CBT). Loss of heterozygosity phenomenon of the recipient at 6q14 locus was observed at 2 months post-CBT and progressed to 6q deletion (6q−) chromosome abnormality. Somatic NRAS mutation was detected at 3 months post-CBT. Thus, 6q− and NRAS mutation were strongly associated with the leukemic transformation in our patient.

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