The Role of Minimally Invasive Vertebral Body Stent on Reduction of the Deflation Effect After Kyphoplasty: A Biomechanical Study

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Abstract

Study Design.

Biomechanical investigation using cadaver spines.

Objective.

The aim of the present study was to assess the magnitude of the deflation effect after balloon kyphoplasty (BKP) or use of minimally invasive vertebral body stent (MIVBS) in in vitro biomechanical condition.

Summary of Background Data.

BKP is a well-established minimally invasive treatment option for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, this technique can lead to a secondary height loss—known as the “deflation effect”—causing intrasegmental kyphosis and an overall alignment failure.

Methods.

The study was conducted on 24 human cadaveric vertebral bodies (T12-L5). After creating a compression fracture model, the fractured vertebral bodies were reduced by BKP (n = 12) or by MIVBS (n = 12) and then augmented with polymethyl methacrylate bone cement. Each step of the procedure was performed under fluoroscopic guidance and the results were analyzed quantitatively. Finally, the strength and stiffness of augmented vertebral bodies were measured by biomechanical tests.

Results.

Complete initial reduction of the fractured vertebral body height was achieved by both systems. Secondary loss of reduction after balloon deflation was significantly greater in the BKP group (2.36 ± 0.63 mm vs. 0.34 ± 0.43 mm in the MIVBS group; P < 0.05). Height gain was significantly higher in the MIVBS group (77.68% ± 11.46% vs. 34.87% ± 13.16% in the BKP group; P < 0.05). Increase in the kyphotic angle gain (relative to the preoperative kyphotic angle) was significantly more in the MIVBS group (95.60% ± 6.12% vs. 77.0% ± 4.94% in the BKP group; P < 0.05). Failure load was significantly higher in the MIVBS group (189% ± 16% vs. 146% ± 14%; P < 0.05). However, stiffness was not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion.

The deflation effect after BKP can be significantly decreased with the use of the MIVBS technique.

Conclusion.

Level of Evidence: N/A

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