In Vivo Measurements of the Ischiofemoral Space in Recreationally Active Participants During Dynamic Activities: A High-Speed Dual Fluoroscopy Study
Ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) is a dynamic process, but its diagnosis is often based on static, supine images.Purpose:
To couple 3-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) models with dual fluoroscopy (DF) images to quantify in vivo hip motion and the ischiofemoral space (IFS) in asymptomatic participants during weightbearing activities and evaluate the relationship of dynamic measurements with sex, hip kinematics, and the IFS measured from axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Study Design:
Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3.Methods:
Eleven young, asymptomatic adults (5 female) were recruited. 3D reconstructions of the femur and pelvis were generated from MRI and CT. The axial and 3D IFS were measured from supine MRI. In vivo hip motion during weightbearing activities was quantified using DF. The bone-to-bone distance between the lesser trochanter and ischium was measured dynamically. The minimum and maximum IFS were determined and evaluated against hip joint angles using a linear mixed-effects model.Results:
The minimum IFS occurred during external rotation for 10 of 11 participants. The IFS measured from axial MRI (mean, 23.7 mm [95% CI, 19.9-27.9]) was significantly greater than the minimum IFS observed during external rotation (mean, 10.8 mm [95% CI, 8.3-13.7]; P < .001), level walking (mean, 15.5 mm [95% CI, 11.4-19.7]; P = .007), and incline walking (mean, 15.8 mm [95% CI, 11.6-20.1]; P = .004) but not for standing. The IFS was reduced with extension (β = 0.66), adduction (β = 0.22), and external rotation (β = 0.21) (P < .001 for all) during the dynamic activities observed. The IFS was smaller in female than male participants for standing (mean, 20.9 mm [95% CI, 19.3-22.3] vs 30.4 mm [95% CI, 27.2-33.8], respectively; P = .034), level walking (mean, 8.8 mm [95% CI, 7.5-9.9] vs 21.1 mm [95% CI, 18.7-23.6], respectively; P = .001), and incline walking (mean, 9.1 mm [95% CI, 7.4-10.8] vs 21.3 mm [95% CI, 18.8-24.1], respectively; P = .003). Joint angles between the sexes were not significantly different for any of the dynamic positions of interest.Conclusion:
The minimum IFS during dynamic activities was smaller than axial MRI measurements. Compared with male participants, the IFS in female participants was reduced during standing and walking, despite a lack of kinematic differences between the sexes. The relationship between the IFS and hip joint angles suggests that the hip should be placed into greater extension, adduction, and external rotation in clinical examinations and imaging, as the IFS measured from static images, especially in a neutral orientation, may not accurately represent the minimum IFS during dynamic motion. Nevertheless, this statement must be interpreted with caution, as only asymptomatic participants were analyzed herein.