Herbal medicines for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have attracted considerable attention nowadays. Alzheimer’s disease is described in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) by the term Nesyān. In this study, 5 main medicinal medieval Persian manuscripts were reviewed to filter plants reported for the treatment of Nesyān. Databases were searched for related possible mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants. Each herb was searched for along with these keywords: “acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibition,” “antioxidant,” “anti-inflammatory,” and “anti-amyloidogenic.” In Total, 44 herbs were used for the treatment of Nesyān; 40 of those were authenticated. Also, 30 plants had at least one of the mechanisms of action that were searched for or related pharmacological functions known for the treatment of AD. In this work, we introduce promising candidates in TPM that could undergo further investigation for identification of their active compounds and clinical validation in the treatment of AD.