Sirt3 Impairment and SOD2 Hyperacetylation in Vascular Oxidative Stress and Hypertension
Clinical studies have shown that Sirt3 (Sirtuin 3) expression declines by 40% by 65 years of age paralleling the increased incidence of hypertension and metabolic conditions further inactivate Sirt3 because of increased NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) and acetyl-CoA levels. Sirt3 impairment reduces the activity of a key mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) because of hyperacetylation.Objective:
In this study, we examined whether the loss of Sirt3 activity increases vascular oxidative stress because of SOD2 hyperacetylation and promotes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.Methods and Results:
Hypertension was markedly increased in Sirt3-knockout (Sirt3−/−) and SOD2-depleted (SOD2+/−) mice in response to low dose of angiotensin II (0.3 mg/kg per day) compared with wild-type C57Bl/6J mice. Sirt3 depletion increased SOD2 acetylation, elevated mitochondrial O2· –, and diminished endothelial nitric oxide. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension was associated with Sirt3 S-glutathionylation, acetylation of vascular SOD2, and reduced SOD2 activity. Scavenging of mitochondrial H2O2 in mCAT mice expressing mitochondria-targeted catalase prevented Sirt3 and SOD2 impairment and attenuated hypertension. Treatment of mice after onset of hypertension with a mitochondria-targeted H2O2 scavenger, mitochondria-targeted hydrogen peroxide scavenger ebselen, reduced Sirt3 S-glutathionylation, diminished SOD2 acetylation, and reduced blood pressure in wild-type but not in Sirt3−/− mice, whereas an SOD2 mimetic, (2-[2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino]-2-oxoethyl) triphenylphosphonium (mitoTEMPO), reduced blood pressure and improved vasorelaxation both in Sirt3−/− and wild-type mice. SOD2 acetylation had an inverse correlation with SOD2 activity and a direct correlation with the severity of hypertension. Analysis of human subjects with essential hypertension showed 2.6-fold increase in SOD2 acetylation and 1.4-fold decrease in Sirt3 levels, whereas SOD2 expression was not affected.Conclusions:
Our data suggest that diminished Sirt3 expression and redox inactivation of Sirt3 lead to SOD2 inactivation and contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension.