Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Phenotypes: Implications for Care

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Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotyping can help define clusters of patients with common characteristics that relate to clinically meaningful outcomes. In this review, we describe 7 clinically meaningful COPD phenotypes that can be identified by primary care physicians as well as specialists and that have specific management and prognostic implications: (1) asthma-COPD overlap phenotype, (2) frequent exacerbator phenotype, (3) upper lobe–predominant emphysema phenotype, (4) rapid decliner phenotype, (5) comorbid COPD phenotype, (6) physical frailty phenotype, and (7) emotional frailty phenotype.

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